Melanoma

Did you know that around 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer by the time they reach 70? This makes it the most common form of cancer in the United States, which is why it’s important to not brush off a suspicious mole or spot — especially if it may be melanoma. 

 

Though melanoma is the rarest form of skin cancer, its increased likelihood of spreading to other layers of the skin and parts of the body makes it the most dangerous. Reducing your risk of developing melanoma starts with learning more about it. Keep reading to find out what causes melanoma, what it may look like, and effective treatment options available today.

What is Malignant Melanoma?

 

Melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer that begins in the epidermis. The epidermis is the uppermost layer of skin and is composed of three different types of cells: basal cells, squamous cells, and melanocyte cells. 

 

Melanoma develops in the melanocytes, which are the skin cells that produce melanin (the pigment that gives skin its tan or brown color). When melanocyte cells become mutated, they begin to reproduce out of control. This process of rapid cell reproduction is what we call cancer. Malignant melanoma occurs when these cancerous cells spread to other parts of the skin or body.

FAQs about Melanoma

 

Understanding melanoma is key to reducing your risk. Learn more about this skin cancer by reading our expert answers to frequently asked questions about melanoma below.

What causes melanoma?

Similar to other forms of skin cancer, such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), melanoma is most likely caused by excessive and unprotected exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, such as from the sun or tanning beds. 

 

Over time, excessive UV exposure damages cell DNA, causing cell mutations, which can make your cells reproduce out of control and spread to other parts of the body.

Is melanoma dangerous?

Compared to basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer. This is because melanoma has a much higher chance of invading surrounding tissue and spreading to other parts of the body if not detected early enough. 

 

If melanoma goes unnoticed and spreads to nearby lymph nodes, the survival rate is around 65%. If melanoma spreads to other, more distant parts of the body, the survival rate is about 25%. This is why it’s essential to have regular skin evaluations with a board-certified dermatologist. Early detection is key to providing timely and effective treatment.

How is melanoma diagnosed?

A diagnosis of melanoma typically begins with a thorough skin evaluation to rule out other forms of skin cancer and skin lesions. 

 

Following an evaluation, the physician or board-certified dermatologist will ask questions regarding symptoms, such as when the mole or growth first appeared and if it has shown any bleeding, oozing, crusting, tenderness, or if it has evolved or changed over time. 

 

If a physician or board-certified dermatologist suspects the spot or growth to be melanoma, then a biopsy is usually performed. A biopsy is used to determine if the cells are malignant or benign. This helps determine the right course of action regarding treatment.

What does melanoma look like?

Considering melanoma develops in the melanocytes, which produce pigment, it most often presents itself as a dark brown to black colored spot. However, melanoma can occasionally appear as a tan, pink, or white spot. 

 

In many cases, melanomas start as a mole (new or existing) and transition into melanoma skin cancer, which can appear quickly over the course of a couple of months. 

 

Furthermore, as mentioned above, early detection of melanoma is the best way to increase the effectiveness of treatment. The ABCDE’s of melanoma and the Ugly Duckling sign are expert guidelines to refer to when examining your skin for melanoma and other forms of skin cancer.

Are there stages of melanoma?

Yes, there are five stages of melanoma you should be aware of. These five stages include: 

 

  • Stage 0 (melanoma in situ) – cancer is in the early phase and confined to the top layer of skin.
  • Stage 1 – cancer has spread deeper into the skin and has a thickness of 1 millimeter to 2 millimeters.
  • Stage 2 – cancer is still only in the skin with no sign of spreading but has a thickness greater than 2 millimeters
  • Stage 3 – usually means the melanoma has spread to either nearby lymph nodes or between the melanoma and lymph nodes. 
  • Stage 4 – cancer has invaded surrounding tissue and spread to other, more distant parts of the body. 

 

If melanoma is detected in its earliest stages, the 5-year survival rate is around 99%. This is why we recommend adults perform a monthly skin cancer self-exam and see a board-certified dermatologist for yearly checks to uncover any suspicious spots or abnormal moles. Remember, it’s always better to be safe than sorry!

Are there different melanoma treatment options?

Yes, there are a few different melanoma treatment options, including surgical incision, chemotherapy, and Mohs surgery

 

For more advanced melanomas, surgical incision and sampling of lymph nodes is recommended to determine if the melanoma has spread. If melanoma skin cancer is more aggressive, chemotherapies are often used as treatment. While Mohs surgery is a treatment option for other skin cancers, it is not commonly used to treat melanoma because it can be difficult to interpret.

Overall, it’s best to stay ahead of skin cancer and get your skin regularly checked by a board-certified dermatologist. Catching any form of skin cancer, whether it’s basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or melanoma, is essential for increasing your chances of finding an effective cure.

Melanoma Photos

 

Understanding what a melanoma looks like and how it can appear on the skin is the best way to detect melanoma skin cancer early. Take a look at the melanoma pictures below.

Contact Brentwood Dermatology for Melanoma Diagnosis & Treatment

 

Do you have a suspicious mole, abnormal lesion, or strange sore you’re concerned about? Our team of expert dermatologists are here to help! Brentwood Dermatology is a leader in skin cancer detection and treatment. Give us a call at 615-377-3448. to schedule an appointment right away.